Drug Recognition Experts
An overview of the DRE Unit of the Los Angeles Police department, where the DRE program was developed. There is a section on Laboratory and Field Evaluation of the DRE program which summarizes various studies on the efficacy of DREs determinations
Copies of the DRE Student and Instructor Manuals are available for download on this website.
A Drug Recognition Expert (DRE) is a law enforcement officer who administers tests on suspected impaired drivers to attempt to determine whether the individual is impaired and if so, to categorize the type of impairing substance. Law enforcement officers become DREs by completing a three phase course. DREs are trained to follow a 12-step protocol. DRE testimony is used …
Contains information about requirements for DRE certification and the DRE protocol for North Carolina.
July 2017 NHTSA report – The report describes the absorption, distribution and elimination of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinal (THC) the primary psychoactive substance in marijuana, in the body. It contrasts this process with the absorption, distribution and elimination of alcohol in the body, as they are very different processes. The poor correlation of THC concentrations in the blood …
WPDCL Forensic Drug Analysis Training Sign Off Sheet
Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012 October; 223(4): 439-446. This study finds that Standardized Field Sobriety Tests are only mildly sensitive to impairment from cannabis in heavy users. THC produced impairment on SFST performance in 30-50% of participants.
The Circuit Court for Carroll County, Maryland held that DRE evidence should be excluded. The court held that identification and classification by DREs “is not generally accepted as valid and reliable in the relevant scientific community.” See the opinion for a summary of expert testimony regarding DRE examinations which raises questions about the accuracy of …
Shea Denning of the UNC School of Government discusses the adoption of Rule 702(a1) and the admissibility of HGN and DRE evidence. For additional information, contact Shea Denning. She is available as a resource on this topic.
Addiction. 2009 December: 104(12):2040-2048. This study finds that THC concentrations persist in whole blood multiple days after drug discontinuation in heavy chronic cannabis users.
Testimony from a DRE was improper where the DRE did not personally observe the defendant but instead based his opinion on review of records.